Saturday, April 1, 2017

Manifestation of iodine deficiency

Iodine is an essential constituent of the hormones of the thyroid gland, namely, triodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). These hormones are essential for normal growth and physical and mental development in animals and man.

Iodine deficiency is the result of insufficient dietary iodine intake, which can lead to inadequate production of thyroid hormones and many adverse effects at all life stages, collectively known as iodine deficiency disorders.

The diet is likely to be deficient whenever the soil content of iodine is low, which is often the case in mountainous regions. The most severe deficient soils are those of the European Alps, the Himalayas, the Andes and the vast mountains of China.
WHO recommends that the daily intake of iodine should be 90 μg for preschool children (0 to 59 months), 120 μg for schoolchildren (6 to 12 years, 150 μgfor adults (those older than 12 years) and 200 μg for pregnant and lactating women.

Iodine deficiency leads to inadequate production of thyroid hormone that indispensible for brain growth and development. The iodine deficiency disorders consist of wide spectrum, including mental retardation, impaired physical development, increased prenatal and infant mortality, hypothyroidism, cretinism and goiter.

The most visible manifestation of iodine deficiency is goiter. Goiter is defined as an enlargement of the thyroid gland and cretinism is a term used for a severe form of iodine deficiency characterized by severe mental retardation. Thyroid function is dependent upon the availability of iodine and several other trace elements, The relationship between the iodine intake level of a population and the occurrence of thyroid disease is U-shaped, with an increase in risk associated with both low and high iodine intake.

Iodine deficiency during pregnancy remains a common cause of preventable cognitive of impairment worldwide. The most severe damage due to iodine deficiency occurs from the fetal period to the third month after birth, during which iodine deficiency can produce cretinism, an irreversible form of mental retardation.
Manifestation of iodine deficiency
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