Saturday, November 30, 2013

What are the most important roles of carbohydrate?

Carbohydrates are the most abundant class of bioorganic molecules on planet Earth. Dietary intake of plant materials is the major carbohydrate source for human and animals.

Carbohydrates have the following functions in humans:
*Carbohydrate oxidation provides energy
The main function of carbohydrate is to provide energy. Each gram of starch or sugar gives four calories to the body.

About 65 top 80 –percent of energy is supplied by the carbohydrates, mainly in the form of starch.

Energy is used to carry out numerous functions at the cellular level. 70-80% of the total energy required by sedentary individuals is to power very basic functions – metabolism, food digestion, absorption and many others. Glucose is the source of energy for the central nervous system. 

*Carbohydrate storage 
Carbohydrate storage in the form of glycogen provides a short –term energy reserve. The storage capacity of carbohydrates in the human body is normally small averaging 400 to 500 g glycogen in the liver and muscle tissue.

*Carbohydrate is linked to protein 
Another important function is to spare proteins for their main function of tissue building and maintenance. It is important to supply sufficient carbohydrates and fats to meet the essential energy needs of the body, otherwise proteins are metabolized to meet energy requirement of the body.

*Carbohydrate linked to lipids
It is related to proper utilization of fat from the diet. It is that fats burn in the flame of carbohydrates, indicating the need for major part of energy to be supplied in the form of carbohydrates.

*Carbohydrates supply carbon for the synthesis of other biochemical substances (protein, lipids, and nucleic acids)

*Carbohydrates form part of the structural framework of DNA and RNA molecules.
What are the most important roles of carbohydrate?


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